Pool operators need to be confident that the pool disinfectant is correctly dosed and controlled, for both the health and comfort of the bathers.
Disinfection of swimming pools is usually achieved using chlorine. Adequate free chorine is required to prevent infections, while eye irritation is minimised by keeping the combined chlorine residual as low as possible. Readthis article to understand the difference between free and total chlorine.
The well-established DPD method, developed by Dr A T Palin (originally called the Palin system), is the test procedure of choice for free, total and combined chlorine as well as bromine and ozone, due to its consistency and reliability. All these tests plus multiple other key and troubleshooting tests for pools and spas are available on the Lumiso Pooltest Expert, our brand-new multi-parameter photometer designed as an all-round solution for your pool and spa water testing needs.
Using DPD reagents in tablet form is the easiest way to test using DPD. There are four main DPD tablets which can be used when measuring chlorine or alternative disinfectants (such as bromine and ozone).
DPD 1 measures free available chlorine
DPD 2 (use with DPD 1) measures combined chlorine
DPD 3 (use with DPD 1) measures total chlorine
DPD 4 measures total available chlorine
Chlorine is used as a primary disinfectant because of its effectiveness in killing potentially harmful organisms. It forms hypochlorous acid in the pool water. The effectiveness of this is influenced by the other chemicals that are in the pool, primarily pH and the amount of bather waste.
Hypochlorous acid that has not reacted with bather waste is free chlorine and must be carefully monitored to guarantee a safe pool.
Hypochlorous acid that reacts with bather waste forms combined chlorine which is a less effective disinfectant than free chlorine. High levels of combined chlorine can also cause eye and nose irritation and an unpleasant smell. Combined chlorine results from the reaction between ammonia-based compounds from the bather waste and chlorine to form monochloramine, then dichloramine.
To measure combined chlorine only, you need to subtract the value for total available chlorine (using DPD 3) from the value for free chlorine (using DPD 1). Chlorine reagents can be viewed here and testing for free, total and combined chlorine both standard and extended range is possible using the Lumiso Pooltest Expert photometer.
Bromine can be used as a disinfectant alternative for chlorine, especially in spas and hot tubs. The bromamines which are formed when bromine is added to pool or spa water are as effective as free chlorine in killing pathogenic microorganisms, therefore total bromine is the key parameter to monitor.
To test for free bromine and bromamine, you use DPD 1. There is no need to differentiate between both as both have disinfectant properties. Tests for total bromine, and bromine in the presence of chlorine are both available on the Lumiso Pooltest Expert, as well as a complete suite of other pool and spa water testing parameters.
Ozone is also used as a primary disinfectant and must be sufficiently dissolved into the pool water to carry out the required oxidation and disinfection. Although ozone is a powerful disinfectant, adequate residuals of ozone must be maintained in the pool water to ensure full control. It is very often used with chlorine or bromine as a secondary disinfectant due to the difficulty in maintaining constant residual.
To test for ozone using DPD, only DPD 4 is required. To view ozone reagents click here.
Lumiso Pooltest Expert utilises the Lumiso optical engine which ensures consistently accurate and reliable results every time. The instrument offers over 30 key pool and spa testing parameters, including all DPD tests mentioned in this article. To find out more about the Lumiso Pooltest Expert or to request a quote please contact the team.
For more information about pool and spa management download our Pool Chemistry Guide or our Spa Chemistry Guide. These guides include definitions of important parameters, a guide to the recommended levels and the consequences of poor water monitoring.
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