Understanding the difference between free and combined chlorine is crucial to understanding water quality after chlorination. Testing the water for both free and combined chlorine allows you to know whether the water you’ve chlorinated is of sufficient quality to drink or disinfect your process, depending upon your application.
Pure chlorine exists as a molecule as a gas (Cl2 ) and when dissolved in water it will react with water to form mostly hypochlorous acid (HOCl):
Cl2 + H2O ↔ HCl + HOCl
Depending on the pH of the water (see image right), the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) will partially dissociate to the hypochlorite ion (OCl–). Both hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite disinfect water but hypochlorous is acid is a more effective disinfectant.
By definition, free chlorine refers to all chlorine present in the water as Cl2(g), HOCl(aq) and OCl–(aq).
Portable water testing methods such as DPD do not distinguish between these three species, and they are all termed free chlorine, with the capability to disinfect microorganisms in the same way as Cl2. Free chlorine will often be denoted as Cl2 in water treatment applications and literature, but can refer to any of the three forms.
When free chlorine is initially added to water it can undergo a very quick reaction with other contaminants in the water, mostly ammonia, NH3. This will result in the formation of chloramines, and the ‘free’ chlorine is converted to ‘combined’ chlorine:
NH3 → NH2Cl → NHCl2 → NCl3
That is; ammonia → monochloramine → dichloramine → nitrogen trichloride (trichloramine)
For the most effective monitoring of free and total chlorine, we recommend Kemio Disinfection. The latest multiparameter platform from Palintest, the Kemio™ Disinfection tests for free chlorine, total chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chlorite and peracetic acid (PAA).
Giving repeatable and reliable results for free chlorine in 60 seconds, Kemio™ guides the user and prompts action when concentration levels fall outside of your defined limits. To find out more about how Kemio™ Disinfection can help you, click here.
22nd May 2020
In this webinar, we discuss how Kemio Disinfection is used to advance disinfectant analysis and validation in different food and beverage applications. Presented by Palintest USA’s David Hird, this webinar is ideal for technical and quality experts in the food and beverage industry.
21st May 2020
In this webinar we review the basics of pool and spa chemistry, including water balance and what is required to reopen your facilities. Starting with why you need to test your pool or spa, we then cover the key test parameters, frequency of testing, suitable test methods and tips for getting the best results.
19th May 2020
Join Palintest’s R&D team as they explain the science behind Kemio’s technology. In this webinar they explain how Kemio is maintenance and calibration free, whilst also explaining the meaning behind accuracy and precision with Kemio technology.